The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of the Ovsynch alone or in combination with CIDR treated buffaloes on conception rate of anestrous Iraqi buffaloes. The present study was conducted on 50 anestrous buffaloes suffering from postpartum ovarian inactivity. Buffaloes were randomly assigned to three treatment groups. Buffaloes in Treatment 1 (n=20) received on day 0 GnRH 250 μg and a 25 mg of PGF2α on day 7, two days later a second injection of GnRH (250 μg). Buffaloes in Treatment 2 (n=20) injected on day 0 of the experiment, GnRH 250 μg and a CIDR was placed in the anterior vagina. On day 7, they were injected with 25 mg of PGF2α and on the following day (day 8) the CIDR were removed. On day 9 a second dose of GnRH (250 μg) was injected. Treatment 3 a control group (n=10) received no treatments. Results showed that in treatment 1, 7 out of 20 buffaloes received treatment exhibited estrus within 74.8 ± 6.3 after second GnRH administration. The estrus induction rate was 35%. Total number of buffaloes became pregnant was 1 (5%). In treatment 2 75% of the buffaloes received treatment exhibited estrus within 77.8 ± 5.6 h after CIDR removal. Total number of buffaloes became pregnant was 7 (31.8%). Lower (P <0.05) Pregnancy rate was achieved in buffaloes treated with Ovsynch than other buffaloes treated with Ovsynch plus CIDR. Higher rates of estrus induction (75%; P<0.05) and conception rate (7 buffaloes out of 20) were found in buffaloes treated with Ovsynch plus CIDR. In conclusion, our results indicate that the addition of Ovsynch to a progesterone-based CIDR protocol substantially improves the estrus induction and pregnancy rates in postpartum anestrous buffaloes.